1 Test of flexible LNG transfer hose with    sub-cooled LN2 As part of the global development of LNG marine transportation, it is necessary to develop and qualify flexible transfer hoses of LNG between the Floating Liquefied Natural Gas Plant (FLNG) and the LNG tanker. These hoses must be tested for mechanical stresses until rupture under a pressure of 20 to 30 bars. By using sub-cooled LN2 in replacement of LNG, the blast is reduced during the rupture. The tests are performed at about -190°C at a pressure up to 30 bars. The rupture of the hose results in instant de-pressurization to atmospheric pressure. The more the LN2 is sub-cooled, the lower is the blast caused by evaporation (BLEVE).
RLD Thermique et Ingénierie
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Cryogenic Engineering
Cryogenics Unlike refrigeration by mechanical means where the refrigerant works in a closed circuit, cryogenic refrigeration is an open-circuit refrigeration with evaporation of the liquid and exhaust of the gas to the atmosphere. For safety and cost reasons, nitrogen is commonly used, allowing reaching -200°C. In these applications, liquid nitrogen (LN2) undergoes a phase change (vaporization) by absorbing heat energy. LN2 can be implemented in many areas, most notably food and pharmaceuticals. In the industry, the LN2 use is competitive for all batch processes where the refrigeration power required is high and discontinuous. The heat exchange by direct contact between LN2 and the application is not always possible or desired.   The use of LN2 (a very low temperature fluid -180°C to -196°C) must be adapted to the industrial application  requiring temperatures usually in the range of 0°C to -100°C. This is achieved by interposing between the LN2 and the application an intermediate medium (thermal processor) maintained at a temperature close to the temperature required for use. RLD has developed and realized several types of such temperature transformers: tube/shell exchangers for liquid or gaseous coolant aluminum block exchangers heat pipe exchangers
LN2 Application Transformateur de température